Raja Yoga by Sri Swami Sivananda

It is said that the original propounder of classical Yoga was Hiranyagarbha Himself. It is Patanjali Maharishi who formulated this science into a definite system under the name of Ashtanga Yoga or Raja Yoga. This forms one of the Shad-Darsananas or Classical Systems of Philosophy. Vyasa has explained the original aphorisms or Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and this has been further elaborated through a gloss by a learned author named Vachaspati Mishra, and through the celebrated writings of Vijnana Bhikshu.

The Yoga, in allegiance to the Sankhya, holds that there is an eternal and omnipresent inert Prakriti and a plurality of omnipresent Conscious Purusha. The Yoga accepts a third principle, viz., Ishvara. The contact of the Purusha with Prakriti makes the latter evolve itself into its various effects. The Purusha, due to Aviveka (non-discrimination), feels that it is an individual on account of its identification with Prakriti and its modifications.

The Yoga concerns itself with the method of freeing the Purusha from this bondage through right effort. Yoga is, thus, more a practical way of attainment than a philosophical excursion into the realms of the Spirit. As a Darsana, it is Sa-Ishvara Sankhya, i.e., it sanctions the twenty-five Tattvas of the Sankhya and adds one more, Ishvara. In doing so, Yoga fulfills its own characteristic of being an utterly practical system of Sadhana. When covered over by the veil of ignorance (Aviveka), the Purusha imagines that He is imperfect, incomplete, and that fulfillment can be had only in His conjunction with Prakriti. The Purusha then, so to say, begins to gaze at Prakriti; and in the light of His consciousness, the inert Prakriti commences its kaleidoscopic display of objects. The Purusha, due to Prakriti-Samyoga, appears to desire for enjoyment of these objects. He acts, as it were. He seems to grasp the objects. Now bondage, though not e ssential to the Purusha, is complete and the vicious circle is kept up. Transmigration of the individual is the consequence of Aviveka and its effects. Yoga by its scientific processes cuts these three knots one by one and leads to Kaivalya Moksha which is the realization of the true Purusha as independent of Prakriti and its evolutes.

Deep within everyone there is an abiding faith in a Supreme Being, someone to whom a Sadhaka can look up for help and guidance, for protection and inspiration. But the ego does not allow this to happen. Disentanglement of the Purusha from the ego alone can lead to Its release from the snares of Prakriti. The ego can hardly be subdued by subjective analysis only; but it is easy to discriminate this ego as separate from the Purusha when it is voluntarily offered as a sacrifice at the altar of self-surrender to a Supreme Being, Ishvarapranidhana. This is the hypothesis of the Yoga, in addition to its exhortation to put forth effort (Sadhana-Marga).

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Raja Yoga is the king of Yogas. It concerns directly with the mind. In this Yoga there is no struggling with Prana or physical body. There are no Hatha Yogic Kriyas. The Yogi seats at ease, watches his mind and silences the bubbling thoughts. He stills the mind, restraints the thought-waves and enters into the thoughtless state or Asamprajnata Samadhi, Hence the name Raja Yoga. Though Raja Yoga is a dualistic philosophy and treats of Prakriti and Purusha, it helps the student in Advaitic Realization of oneness eventually. Though there is the mention of Purusha, ultimately the Purusha becomes identical with Highest Self or Purusha, or Brahman of Upanishads. Raja Yoga pushes the student to the highest rung of the spiritual ladder of Advaitic realization of Brahman.

Patanjali’s Yoga system is written in Sutras. A ‘Sutra’ is a terse verse. It is an aphoristic saying. It is pregnant with deep, hidden significance. Rishis of yore have expressed philosophical ideas and their realization in the form of Sutras only. It is very difficult to understand the meaning of the Sutras without the help of a commentary, a gloss or a teacher who is well-versed in Yoga. A Yogi with full realization can explain the Sutras beautifully. Literally, Sutra means a thread. Just as various kinds of flowers with different colours are nicely arranged in a string, to make a garland, just as rows of pearls are beautifully arranged in a string to form a necklace, so also Yogic ideas are well-arranged in Sutras. They are arranged into Chapters.

  • The First Chapter is Samadhi-pada. It deals with different kinds of Samadhi. It contains 51 Sutras. Obstacles in meditation, five kinds of Vritti and their control, three kinds of Vairagya, nature of Ishvara, various methods to enter into Samadhi and the way to acquire peace of mind by developing virtues are described here.
  • The Second Chapter is Sadhana-pada. It contains 55 Sutras. It treats of Kriya Yoga, viz., Tapas, study and self-surrender to God, the five Kleshas or afflictions, the methods to destroy these afflictions which stand in the way of getting Samadhi, Yama and Niyama and their fruits, practice of Asana and its benefits, Pratyahara and its advantage, etc.
  • The Third Chapter is Vibhuti-pada. It contains 56 Sutras. It treats of Dharana, Dhyana and various kinds of Samyama on external objects, mind, internal Chakras and on several objects, to acquire various Siddhis.
  • The Fourth Chapter is Kaivalya-pada or Independence. It contains 34 Sutras. It treats of the independence of a full-blown Yogi who has perfect discrimination between Prakriti and Purusha, and who has separated himself from the three Guna. It also deals with mind and its nature. Dharmamegha Samadhi also is described here.


States of the Mind

Raja Yoga is mainly concerned with the mind, its modifications and its control. There are five states of the mind – Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta, Ekagra and Niruddha. Usually the mind is running in various directions; its rays are scattered. This is the Kshipta state. Sometimes it is self-forgetful, it is full of foolishness (Mudha). When you try to practice concentration, the mind seems to get concentrated but gets distracted often. This is Vikshipta. But with prolonged and repeated practice of concentration again and again, and repeating Lord’s Name, it becomes one-pointed. This is called the Ekagra state. Later on, it is fully controlled (Niruddha). It is ready to be dissolved in the Supreme Purusha, when you get Asamprajnata Samadhi.

To have peace of mind, you will have to cultivate the four great virtues – Maitri, Karuna, Mudita and Upeksha. Maitri (friendliness), you should have towards equals. You should have Karuna (compassion) for those who are in distress. You should have Mudita (complacency) towards those who are superior to you. Complacency will destroy jealousy. All are your brothers. If a man is placed in a better position, feel happy over it. When you come across wicked people, be indifferent to them. This is Upeksha (indifference). By these methods, you will have peace of mind.


The five kinds of afflictions are: Avidya (ignorance), Asmita (egoism), Raga (attraction), Dvesha (aversion) and Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life). Samadhi destroys all this. Raga and Dvesha have five states – Udara (fully manifest), Vicchinna (hidden), Tanu (thinned out), Prasupta (dormant) and Dagdha (burnt). In worldly-minded people who are sunk in worldliness, Raga and Dvesha assume an Udara Avastha; they are in an expanded state i.e., they have a full and unhampered play. Vicchinna Avastha is that state in which Raga and Dvesha are hidden. The husband and wife sometimes quarrel; then love is temporarily hidden. Again she smiles; then love comes back. This is Vicchinna Avastha. Some people do a little bit of Pranayama, Kirtan and Japa. In them Raga and Dvesha become thinned out (Tanu Avastha). Sometimes, on account of unsuitable conditions, they lie dormant (Prasupta Avastha). In Samadhi they are burnt – Dagdha. Raga and Dvesha constitute this Samsara. They constitute the mind. Mind is a force which has no real entity but appears to be for the time being, and deludes the Jivas. It is superior to Prana. It is superior to matter. But, above the mind there is discrimination. Discrimination can control the mind; enquiry into your real nature or Atma-Vichara can control the mind. If you destroy the Raga-Dvesha through meditation and Samadhi, the mind will be annihilated. Your effort should be daily to practice concentration, even for five or ten minutes; then you will be able to control the mind and enter into Samadhi.


Obstacles in Meditation

There are several obstacles to meditation. Vedanta describes the obstacles to be Laya, Vikshepa, Kashaya and Rasasvada. Patanjali says: “Disease, dullness, doubt, carelessness, laziness, worldly-mindedness, illusion, missing the point, unstability – these are obstacles in Yoga.” Grief, melancholy, tremor of the body, inhalation and exhalation are auxiliaries to these main obstacles. You will have to remove all these obstacles. During meditation, if you are overpowered by sleep, stand up, dash cold water on the face, practice a few Asanas and Pranayama. Sleep will go. Another age-old practice is, for those who have a‘choti’ (tuft of hair), to tie the tuft to a nail of wall by means of a thread – if you doze during meditation, the nail on the wall will pull you up. Take light food at night. Abhyasa and Vairagya are the best means of avoiding obstacles. Vairagya is not running away from the world. Vairagya is a mental state. Analyze your thoughts. Scrutinize your motives. Give up the objects that your mind likes most, at least for some time. When the craving for them has vanished, then you can take them, as a master.


Three Classes of Aspirants

Raja Yoga is the royal road to freedom from misery. It treats of the four great principles: misery, its cause, freedom from misery and the means. The practice of the methods prescribed in Raja Yoga leads to the cessation of all miseries and attainment of eternal bliss. Practice from today. Never miss a day. Remember each day brings you nearer to the end of earthly existence as human being. You have wasted many days, many months and many years. You do not realize it because you have drunk the liquor of Moha. Therefore, you do not understand the real cause of the miseries of this earthly life.

The cause of this misery is Avidya. When the sun of discrimination arises within, the Purusha realizes that He is distinct from Prakriti, that He is independent and unaffected. Raja Yoga gives you a most practical method of bringing about this exalted state.

According to Raja Yoga, there are three types of aspirants – Uttama, Madhyama and Adhama Adhikaris. To three classes of aspirants Raja Yoga prescribes three kinds of Sadhana. To the Uttama Adhikari (first-class aspirant) Raja Yoga prescribes Abhyasa and Vairagya. He practices meditation on the Self; he practices Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha (restraining the modification of the mind-stuff) and soon enters into Samadhi. This is practice (Abhyasa) sustained by Vairagya. To the Madhyama Adhikari (middling aspirant) Raja Yoga prescribes the Kriya Yoga – Tapas, Svadhyaya and Ishvarapranidhana. Tapas is austerity. Egolessness and selfless service are the greatest forms of Tapas. Humility and desirelessness are the greatest forms of austerity. Practice these through ceaseless, untiring, selfless service. Practice the three kinds of Tapas mentioned in the Gita. Disciplinary practices like fasting, etc., also come under Tapas. Svadhyaya is study of spiritual literature and also Japa of your Ishta Mantra. Ishvarapranidhana is self-surrender to the Lord and doing all actions as Ishvararpana, as offering unto the Lord. These three form the Sadhanas of the Madhyama Adhikari who enters into deep meditation very soon and attains Kaivalya Moksha. To the Adhama Adhikari, lowest kind of aspirant, Raja Yoga prescribes Ashtanga Yoga or the eightfold Sadhana – Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana andSamadhi.


Ashtanga Yoga

Patanjali’s Raja Yoga is generally termed the Ashtanga Yoga or the Yoga of Eight Limbs, through the practice of which freedom is achieved. These eight limbs are:

Yama or Eternal Vows:

  • Ahimsa (non-violence)
  • Satya (truth)
  • Asteya (non-stealing)
  • Brahmacharya (continence) and
  • Aparigraha (non-avariciousness)

Niyama or Observances:

  • Saucha (purity)
  • Santosha (contentment)
  • Tapas (austerities)
  • Svadhyaya (study) and
  • Ishvarapranidhana (surrender to God)

Asana (firm, comfortable meditative posture)

Pranayama (the regulation of the Vital Force)

Pratyahara (abstraction of the senses and mind from objects)

Dharana (concentration)

Dhyana (meditation)

Samadhi (superconscious state or trance)

These eight limbs have been scientifically arranged and dealt with. They are the natural steps in the ladder which takes man from his human to the real divine nature. From the gross to the subtle, all the chords that bind the Purusha to Prakriti are cut asunder. This snapping of the ties releases the Purusha to enjoy his Independence, Kaivalya Moksha. This is the goal of Raja Yoga.

Yama and Niyama purify the individual’s actions and make them more Sattvic. Tamas and Rajas which are the pillars of Samsara are pulled down through the practice of the Ten Canons of Yama and Niyama. Inner purity is increased. The individual’s nature itself is made Sattvic. Asana gives the individual control over the Rajasic impulses; and at the same time it forms the foundation of the grand structure of Antaranga Sadhana, or the Inner Yoga-process. Pranayama brings the aspirant face to face with the Life-Principle. Control of this Life-Principle gives him an insight into its motive force. He is made aware of the fact that it is desire that sustains the life-force. Desire is the cause of externalization of the mind. Desire is the bed of Vrittis. Vrittis together form the mind, and it is the mind that links Purusha with Prakriti. The mind or the Chitta is the subtlest form of Prakriti’s manifestations. If mind is to be destroyed, Vrittis are to be eradicated. If Vrittis are to be eradicated, desire is to be rooted out. The Yogi than rapidly withdraws all the rays of the mind from their external propulsion (Pratyahara). To find the root of the mind, the Seed-Desire, he needs the light of the whole mind. At the same time, prevention of the externalization of the mind breaks the vicious circle, as desire is deprived of its active manifestation. This concentrated beam of light is then directed towards the root of the mind itself (Dharana); and the mind is held in check. Now the consciousness which had so long been flowing outward collects itself and flows back into its source – the Purusha within, which is Dhyana. The link with Prakriti is gone. The Purusha experiences the transcendental state of independence – Kaivalya – in Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Now ignorance is destroyed. The Purusha realizes that it was only His consciousness that gave Prakriti its power to please Him, to give Him joy, to delude Him, and to bind Him. He enjoys the bliss of His own nature and remains for ever independent and blissful. All thought ceases once for all in Nirvikalpa Samadhi. The seeds of Desire and Vasanas and Samskaras are fried in toto; this is Nirbija Samadhi. The Yogi in this supreme state loses all external consciousness, all awareness of duality and multiplicity; he loses even the I-idea (Asmita) in Asamprajnata Samadhi. That is the Supreme State where the Seer (Purusha) is established in His own Svarupa.

Do not imagine that you are an Uttama Adhikari and that you have only to sit in meditation and enter into Samadhi. You will have a terrible downfall. Even after years of practice you will find you have not progressed an inch forward, because there are deep within you lurking desires and cravings, evil Vrittis which are far beyond your reach. Be humble. Make a searching analysis of your heart and mind. Even if you are really a first-class aspirant, think you are an aspirant of the lowest class and practice the eightfold Sadhana prescribed by Raja Yoga. The more time you spend in the first two steps, viz., Yama and Niyama, the less will be the time needed to attain perfection in meditation. It is the preparation that takes very long. But do not wait for perfection in Yama and Niyama, in order to take up the higher practices of Asana, Pranayama and meditation. Try to get established in Yama and Niyama, and at the same time practice Asana, Pranayama and meditation as much as you can. The two must go hand in hand. Then success will be rapid. You will soon enter into Nirvikalpa Samadhi and attain Kaivalya Moksha. What that supreme state is no one has described, and no words can describe. Practice, O bold aspirant, and realize it for yourself. May you shine as a Yogi in this very birth!


The Book of the Spiritual Man


This is Charles Johnston’s  translation of and commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Johnston’s interpretation of this seminal yogic text focuses on “the birth of the spiritual from the psychical man.” – Summary by Maggie Russell


Patanjali (c. 150 BC – ) // Charles Johnston (1867 – 1931)

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (full audio book)



From the collection of the youtube channel:GreatestAudioBooks.com

The Yoga tradition is much older, there are references in the Mahābhārata, and the Gitā identifies three kinds of yoga. The Yoga Sūtras codifies the royal or best (rāja) yoga practices, presenting these as an eight-limbed system (ashtānga). The philosophic tradition is related to the Sankhya school. The focus is on the mind; the second sutra defines Yoga – it is the cessation of all mental fluctuations, all wandering thoughts cease and the mind is focused on a single thought.
In contrast to the focus on the mind in the Yoga sutras, later traditions of Yoga such as the Hatha yoga focus on more complex asanas or body postures.

Patañjali defended in his yoga-treatise several ideas that are not the mainstream of either Sankhya or Yoga. He, according to the Iyengar adept, biographer and scholar Kofi Busia, acknowledges the ego, not as a separate entity. The subtle body linga sarira he would not regard as permanent and he would deny it a direct control over external matters. This is not in accord with classical Sankhya and Yoga.

Although much of the aphorisms in the Yoga Sutra possibly pre-dates Patanjali, it is clear that much is original and it is more than a mere compilation. The clarity and unity he brought to divergent views prevalent till then have inspired a long line of teachers and practitioners up to the present day in which B.K.S. Iyengar is a known defender. With some translators, he seems to be a dry and technical propounder of the philosophy, but with others, he is an empathic and humorous witty friend and spiritual guide.

Patañjali (Sanskrit: पतञ्जलि, IPA: [pət̪əɲɟəli]) is a Sanskrit proper name. Several important Sanskrit works are ascribed to one or more authors of this name, and a great deal of scholarship has been devoted over the last century or so to the issue of disambiguation.

Amongst the more important authors called Patañjali are:

– The author of the Mahābhāṣya, an advanced treatise on Sanskrit grammar and linguistics framed as a commentary on Kātyāyana’s vārttikas (short comments) on Pāṇini’s Aṣṭādhyāyī. This Patañjali’s life is the only one which can be securely dated (as one of the grammatical examples he uses makes reference to the siege of the town of Sāketā by the Greeks, an event known from other sources to have taken place around 120 BC).

– The compiler of the Yoga Sūtras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice, who according to some historians was a notable person of Samkhya, contemporaneous with Ishvarakrishna’s Samkhya-karika around 400 CE.

– The author of an unspecified work of medicine (āyurveda).
(Summary adapted from Wikipedia. org – Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?t…

OM Shanti! Shanti! Shantih!

Yoga sutras of Patanjali : 4. On liberation

कैवल्यपाद (Kaivalya-Pāda)


जन्मओषधिमन्त्रतपस्समाधिजाः सिद्धयः ॥१॥
janma-oṣadhi-mantra-tapas-samādhi-jāḥ siddhayaḥ ||1||
Supernatural powers (siddhis) arise from birth, drugs, mantras, austerity, or yoga (samadhi) ||1||

जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात् ॥२॥
jāty-antara-pariṇāmaḥ prakṛty-āpūrāt ||2||
Physical transformation engenders inner transformation of the form of existence. ||2||

निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनांवरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत् ॥३॥
nimittam-aprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ-varaṇa-bhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat ||3||
However, outer causes are not sufficient to bring about inner change, which can be likened to a farmer removing a sluice gate so as to allow water to irrigate his rice field so that rice can grow there. ||3||

निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात् ॥४॥
nirmāṇa-cittāny-asmitā-mātrāt ||4||
The mutable self (chitta) is engendered solely by identification with that which is mutable. ||4||

प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम् ॥५॥
pravṛtti-bhede prayojakaṁ cittam-ekam-anekeṣām ||5||
While the forms may manifest in various ways, the mutable essence (chitta) is the underlying principle of these many forms. ||5||

तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम् ॥६॥
tatra dhyānajam-anāśayam ||6||
In the various manifestations, the impression engendered by contemplation (dhyana) is free of influences. ||6||

कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनः त्रिविधमितरेषाम् ॥७॥
karma-aśukla-akṛṣṇaṁ yoginaḥ trividham-itareṣām ||7||
For a yogi, the law of cause and effect (karma) is neither white nor black, but is threefold for others. ||7||

ततः तद्विपाकानुग्णानामेवाभिव्यक्तिः वासनानाम् ॥८॥
tataḥ tad-vipāka-anugṇānām-eva-abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām ||8||
In accordance with this law of cause and effect, the fruits ripen that correspond to the underlying desires (vasanas). ||8||

जाति देश काल व्यवहितानामप्यान्तर्यां स्मृतिसंस्कारयोः एकरूपत्वात् ॥९॥
jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām-apy-āntaryāṁ smṛti-saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt ||9||
Even if modality, place and time cease to exist, the continuity of wish and consequences remains, for remembrance (smriti) and impressions (samskaras) are part of the same being. ||9||

तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात् ॥१०॥
tāsām-anāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt ||10||
The continuity arising from wish and reality has no beginning, for the will to live is eternal. ||10||

हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैःसंगृहीतत्वातेषामभावेतदभावः ॥११॥
hetu-phala-āśraya-ālambanaiḥ-saṁgṛhītatvāt-eṣām-abhāve-tad-abhāvaḥ ||11||
The continuity of wish and reality arises from supporting factors and external objects. If they disappear, the continuity arising from wish and reality likewise disappears. ||11||

अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्तिअध्वभेदाद् धर्माणाम् ॥१२॥
atīta-anāgataṁ svarūpato-‘sti-adhvabhedād dharmāṇām ||12||
The past and future exist inherently. Tasks (dharma) arise from the changes. ||12||

ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्माः गुणात्मानः ॥१३॥
te vyakta-sūkṣmāḥ guṇa-atmānaḥ ||13||
These characteristics are manifest or subtle, physical or spiritual ||13||

परिणामैकत्वात् वस्तुतत्त्वम् ॥१४॥
pariṇāma-ikatvāt vastu-tattvam ||14||
The uniqueness of change comprises the essence of everything. ||15||

वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः ॥१५॥
vastusāmye citta-bhedāt-tayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ ||15||
That which is mutable in us (chitta) takes various paths to the same object, perception of which thus differs from one person another . ||15||

न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं चेद्वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात् ॥१६॥
na caika-citta-tantraṁ cedvastu tad-apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt ||16||
Nor does an object depend on that which is mutable in human beings; for if it did, then what would happen to the object if it were not perceived? ||16||

तदुपरागापेक्षित्वात् चित्तस्य वस्तुज्ञाताज्ञातं ॥१७॥
tad-uparāga-apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu-jñātājñātaṁ ||17||
However, whether an object, situation or person is understood or misjudged depends on the emotional preconceptions and the expectations of that which is mutable in human beings. ||17||

सदाज्ञाताः चित्तव्र्त्तयः तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात् ॥१८॥
sadājñātāḥ citta-vrttayaḥ tat-prabhoḥ puruṣasya-apariṇāmitvāt ||18||
The true self can always observe the misconceptions (vritti) in that which is mutable in human beings, because this pure self (purusha) is not in motion. ||18||

न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात् ॥१९॥
na tat-svābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt ||19||
As that which is mutable in human beings is not inherently identifiable, it is a perceptible object. ||19||
एक समये चोभयानवधारणम् ॥२०॥
eka samaye c-obhaya-an-avadhāraṇam ||20||
Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously. ||20||

चित्तान्तर दृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेः अतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसंकरश्च ॥२१॥
cittāntara dṛśye buddhi-buddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smṛti-saṁkaraś-ca ||21||
That which is mutable in one human being (chitta) being perceived by another mutable human being (chitta) would be as absurd as perception perceiving perception, and would result in confusion of remembrance. ||21||

चितेरप्रतिसंक्रमायाः तदाकारापत्तौ स्वबुद्धि संवेदनम् ॥२२॥
citer-aprati-saṁkramāyāḥ tad-ākāra-āpattau svabuddhi saṁ-vedanam ||22||
Unlike the characteristic of that which is immutable in human beings, the true self is unchangeable and can thus achieve full knowledge and self knowledge. ||23||

द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम् ॥२३॥
draṣṭṛ-dṛśy-opa-raktaṁ cittaṁ sarva-artham ||23||
The actual purpose of that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) is to see close up both the observer (drashtu) and the observed object. ||23||

तदसङ्ख्येय वासनाभिः चित्रमपि परार्थम् संहत्यकारित्वात् ॥२४॥
tad-asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram-api parārtham saṁhatya-kāritvāt ||24||
This human mutability (chitta) has countless wishes of every description (vasana). But it has another purpose – namely to establish a connection between the outside world and the true self. ||24||

विशेषदर्शिनः आत्मभावभावनानिवृत्तिः ॥२५॥
viśeṣa-darśinaḥ ātmabhāva-bhāvanā-nivṛttiḥ ||25||
For he who has experienced this unique vision (darshana), the desire (vritti) for self fulfillment vanishes. ||25||

तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम् ॥२६॥
tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ||26||
Then the power of discernment (viveka) will be strengthened and all that is mutable in human beings (chitta) will take the path of liberation (kaivalya). ||26||

तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः ॥२७॥
tac-chidreṣu pratyaya-antarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ ||27||
This viewpoint is breached by preconceptions (samskara), whereupon other impressions arise. ||27||

हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम् ॥२८॥
hānam-eṣāṁ kleśavad-uktam ||28||
These preconceptions are eliminated as described previously for spiritual burdens (klesha). ||28||

प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेः धर्ममेघस्समाधिः ॥२९॥
prasaṁkhyāne-‘py-akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharma-meghas-samādhiḥ ||29||
Attaining genuinely deep insight even engenders constant imperturbability and discernment (viveka). This state is referred to as dharma megha samadhi. ||29||

ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः ॥३०॥
tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivṛttiḥ ||30||
Then the concept (vritti) of spiritual burden (klesha) and cause and effect (karma) will be completely removed. ||30||

तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्यात् ज्ञेयमल्पम् ॥३१॥
tadā sarva-āvaraṇa-malāpetasya jñānasya-ānantyāt jñeyamalpam ||31||
Then all veils and uncertainty fall away. Knowledge that can be gained is nothing compared to the infinity of knowledge. ||31||

ततः कृतार्थानं परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम् ॥३२॥
tataḥ kṛtārthānaṁ pariṇāma-krama-samāptir-guṇānām ||32||
In this way is the purpose of change accomplished and all change (krama) in the physical realm (guna) comes to an end. ||32||

क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्त निर्ग्राह्यः क्रमः ॥३३॥
kṣaṇa-pratiyogī pariṇāma-aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ ||33||
The experience of a sequencing process of moments and changes comes to an end, thus making change (krama) a real experience. ||33||

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानांप्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥३४॥
puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ||34||
Liberation (kaivalya) fulfills the goal of the true self (purusha); matter (guna) is transcended. The true nature of being and the force of absolute knowledge are then revealed. ||34||


Yoga sutras of Patanjali : 3. On results

विभूतिपाद (Vibhūti-Pāda)


देशबन्धः चित्तस्य धारणा ॥१॥
deśa-bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā ||1||
Harmony with your thoughts and the ability to concentrate are attained by aligning the mutable aspects of humankind with a specific subject. ||1||

तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम् ॥२॥
tatra pratyaya-ikatānatā dhyānam ||2||
Allowing your thoughts to flow in an uninterrupted stream results in contemplation (dhyana). ||2||

तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिवसमाधिः ॥३॥
tadeva-artha-mātra-nirbhāsaṁ svarūpa-śūnyam-iva-samādhiḥ ||3||
Insight (samadhi) occurs when only the subject matter of the orientation shines forth without any being affected by the person in question. ||3||

त्रयमेकत्र संयमः ॥४॥
trayam-ekatra saṁyamaḥ ||4||
The three processes of dharana, dhyana, and samadhi, when taken together, are the components of meditation (samyama). ||4||

तज्जयात् प्रज्ञालोकः ॥५॥
tajjayāt prajñālokaḥ ||5||
Mastery of this meditation gives rise to absolute knowledge of all that can be perceived. ||5||

तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः ॥६॥
tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ||6||
This meditation is carried out in the three aforementioned successive steps. ||6||

त्रयमन्तरन्गं पूर्वेभ्यः ॥७॥
trayam-antarangaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ||7||
These three steps are more internal (anga) than the previous steps. ||7||

तदपि बहिरङ्गं निर्बीजस्य ॥८॥
tadapi bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya ||8||
However, these three steps are still external compared to ultimate knowledge (nirbija samadhi). ||8||

व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोः अभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षण चित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः ॥९॥
vyutthāna-nirodha-saṁskārayoḥ abhibhava-prādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇa cittānvayo nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ ||9||
That high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of transition when the rising tendency of deep impressions, the subsiding tendency, and the mutable nature of humankind (chitta) converge. ||9||

तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारत् ॥१०॥
tasya praśānta-vāhitā saṁskārat ||10||
The tranquil flow of transition to tranquility gives rise to a new impression (samskara). ||10||

सर्वार्थता एकाग्रातयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः ॥११॥
sarvārthatā ekāgrātayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhi-pariṇāmaḥ ||11||
The transition to insight (samadhi-parinama) is characterized by the mutability in human beings (chitta) becoming progressively less scattered, whereas the tendency toward consolidation increases. ||11||

ततः पुनः शातोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः ॥१२॥
tataḥ punaḥ śātoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasya-ikāgratā-pariṇāmaḥ ||12||
The transition to one-pointedness, or ekagrata-parinamah, is the transition whereby human mutability (chitta) becomes perfectly balanced between arising and subsiding. ||12||

एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्था परिणामा व्याख्याताः ॥१३॥
etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ||13||
This explains the transformation of relinquishment (dharma-parinama), characteristics (lakshana-parinama) and states into material elements of the senses. ||13||

शानोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी ॥१४॥
śān-odita-avyapadeśya-dharmānupātī dharmī ||14||
Past, present and future tasks are all based on one and the same foundation. ||14||

क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यतेवे हेतुः ॥१५॥
kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyateve hetuḥ ||15||
Distinctness in transformation (anyatvam-parinama) are based on differences in the sequence ||15||

परिणामत्रयसंयमाततीतानागत ज्ञानम् ॥१६॥
pariṇāmatraya-saṁyamāt-atītānāgata jñānam ||16||
Meditation (samyama) on the three types of change (parinama-traya) gives rise to knowledge of the past and future. ||16||

शब्दार्थप्रत्ययामामितरेतराध्यासात्संकरः तत्प्रविभागसंयमात् सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम् ॥१७॥
śabdārtha-pratyayāmām-itaretarādhyāsāt-saṁkaraḥ tat-pravibhāga-saṁyamāt sarvabhūta-ruta-jñānam ||17||
The name, task and experience associated with an object are interconnected. By meditating (samyama) on the distinction between these three, we attain knowledge (jnana) concerning the form of expression of all living beings. ||17||

संस्कारसाक्षात्करणात् पूर्वजातिज्ञानम् ॥१८॥
saṁskāra-sākṣātkaraṇāt pūrva-jāti-jñānam ||18||
Through meditation on our impressions (samskaras) comes the knowledge (jnana) of previous incarnations. ||18||

प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम् ॥१९॥
pratyayasya para-citta-jñānam ||19||
Meditation on the thoughts of another person gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of their mutable being (chitta). ||19||

न च तत् सालम्बनं तस्याविषयी भूतत्वात् ॥२०॥
na ca tat sālambanaṁ tasya-aviṣayī bhūtatvāt ||20||
But we learn nothing from the true nature of another person, for they are not an object that can be perceived. ||20||

कायरूपसंयमात् तत्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुः प्रकाशासंप्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम् ॥२१॥
kāya-rūpa-saṁyamāt tat-grāhyaśakti-stambhe cakṣuḥ prakāśāsaṁprayoge-‘ntardhānam ||21||
Through meditation on the form of one’s own physical body, it becomes possible to impede the capacity that renders the body visible. This precludes a connection between light and the eyes and renders the body invisible to others. ||21||

सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमातपरान्तज्ञानम् अरिष्टेभ्यो वा ॥२२॥
sopa-kramaṁ nirupa-kramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamāt-aparāntajñānam ariṣṭebhyo vā ||22||
Meditation (samyama) on foreseeable and unforeseeable causes and causal relationships (karma) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning fate. ||22||

मैत्र्यदिषु बलानि ॥२३॥
maitry-adiṣu balāni ||23||
Meditating on love (maitri) and the other positive attitudes (see ys 1.33) engenders the necessary strength. ||23||

बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनी ॥२४॥
baleṣu hastibalādīnī ||24||
Meditating on strength itself engenders the strength of an elephant. ||24||

प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात् सूक्ष्माव्यावहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम् ॥२५॥
pravṛtty-āloka-nyāsāt sūkṣmā-vyāvahita-viprakṛṣṭa-jñānam ||25||
Meditating on the source of the inner light gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of subtle, concealed and remote entities. ||25||

भुवज्ञानं सूर्येसंयमात् ॥२६॥
bhuva-jñānaṁ sūrye-saṁyamāt ||26||
Meditation (samyama) on the sun gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of the ethereal and physical worlds. ||26||

चन्द्रे तारव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥२७॥
candre tāravyūha-jñānam ||27||
Meditating on the moon (chandra) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning the arrangement of the stars. ||27||

ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम् ॥२८॥
dhruve tadgati-jñānam ||28||
Meditating on the polestar engenders knowledge (jnana) of its constellation. ||28||

नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥२९॥
nābhicakre kāyavyūha-jñānam ||29||
Meditation on the energy center of the navel (nabhi chakra) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning the arrangement and structure of the physical body. ||29||

कन्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासा निवृत्तिः ॥३०॥
kanṭha-kūpe kṣutpipāsā nivṛttiḥ ||30||
Meditation on the pit of the throat (kantha kupa) causes hunger and thirst to cease. ||30||

कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम् ॥३१॥
kūrma-nāḍyāṁ sthairyam ||31||
Meditation on the energy in the spine (kurma nadi) engenders steadiness. ||31||

मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम् ॥३२॥
mūrdha-jyotiṣi siddha-darśanam ||32||
Meditation on the light inside the head engenders contact with the masters (siddhas). ||32||

प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम् ॥३३॥
prātibhād-vā sarvam ||33||
Meditiation on intuition engenders knowledge about everything. ||33||

ह्र्डये चित्तसंवित् ॥३४॥
hrḍaye citta-saṁvit ||34||
Meditation on the heart (hridaya) engenders knowledge concerning human mutability (chitta). ||34||

सत्त्वपुरुषायोः अत्यन्तासंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषोभोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात् पुरुषज्ञानम् ॥३५॥
sattva-puruṣāyoḥ atyantā-saṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo-bhogaḥ para-arthat-vāt-sva-arthasaṁyamāt puruṣa-jñānam ||35||
Outer enjoyment (bhoga) arises from a failure to distinguish between the physical world and the true self, which are very different from each other.
Knowledge (jhana) of the true self (purusha) arises from meditation (samyama) on matters concerning the true self rather than external matters. ||35||

ततः प्रातिभस्रावाणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते ॥३६॥
tataḥ prātibha-srāvāṇa-vedana-ādarśa-āsvāda-vārtā jāyante ||36||
This results in intuitive hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling. ||36||

ते समाधवुपसर्गाव्युत्थाने सिद्धयः ॥३७॥
te samādhav-upasargā-vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ||37||
These powers are of secondary importance to those who have attained knowledge (samadhi), but are nonetheless feats for materially oriented individuals. ||37||

बद्न्हकारणशैथिल्यात् प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः ॥३८॥

badnha-kāraṇa-śaithilyāt pracāra-saṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ||38||

Relinquishing the causes of attachment to the physical realm and gaining knowledge of the energy channels engenders the ability to enter into another body. ||38||

उदानजयाअत् जलपण्खकण्टकादिष्वसङ्गोऽत्क्रान्तिश्च ॥३९॥
udāna-jayāat jala-paṇkha-kaṇṭakādiṣv-asaṅgo-‘tkrāntiśca ||39||
Gaining mastery over upward flowing energy (udana-vayu) severs contact with mud, water, thorns and the like; whereupon the yogi levitates. ||39||

समानजयाज्ज्वलनम् ॥४०॥
samāna-jayāj-jvalanam ||40||
Mastery over metabolic energy (samana-vayu) engenders inner fire. ||40||

श्रोत्राकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् दिव्यं श्रोत्रम् ॥४१॥
śrotra-ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt divyaṁ śrotram ||41||
Meditation (samyama) on the relationship between space and the power of hearing engenders the divine power of hearing. ||41||

कायाकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाकाश गमनम् ॥४२॥
kāyākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt laghu-tūla-samāpatteśca-ākāśa gamanam ||42||
Meditating (samyama) on the relationship between the body and space and contemplating (samapatti) the lightness of cotton engender the ability to move through space weightlessly. ||42||

बहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिः महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशावरणक्षयः ॥४३॥
bahir-akalpitā vṛttiḥ mahā-videhā tataḥ prakāśa-āvaraṇa-kṣayaḥ ||43||
Meditating on unimaginable external thought waves gives rise to maximum disembodiment. This in turn lifts the veil on the true self. ||43||

स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमात् भूतजयः ॥४४॥
sthūla-svarūpa-sūkṣma-anvaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt bhūtajayaḥ ||44||
Meditating on the outer manifestations, true nature, underlying principle, temporal sequence, and purpose of something engenders mastery (jaya) of the physical elements (bhutas). ||44||

ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसंपत् तद्धरानभिघात्श्च ॥४५॥
tato-‘ṇimādi-prādurbhāvaḥ kāyasaṁpat tad-dharānabhighātśca ||45||
This mastery engenders the ability to make the body appear to be extremely small, as well as attainment of an absolutely physical body and its indestructible integrity. ||45||

रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसंपत् ॥४६॥
rūpa-lāvaṇya-bala-vajra-saṁhananatvāni kāyasaṁpat ||46||
The perfection of the body includes beauty, gracefulness, strength, and adamantine hardness. ||46||

ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितावयार्थवत्त्वसंयमातिन्द्रिय जयः ॥४७॥
grahaṇa-svarūpa-asmitā-avaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt-indriya jayaḥ ||47||
Meditation (samyama) on the process of perception, its actual form, your I-ness, and the purpose of your life engenders mastery (jaya) over the senses. ||47||

ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च ॥४८॥
tato mano-javitvaṁ vikaraṇa-bhāvaḥ pradhāna-jayaś-ca ||48||
This results in quickness of mind, liberation from the sense organs, and mastery (jaya) over matter. ||48||

सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च ॥४९॥
sattva-puruṣa-anyatā-khyātimātrasya sarva-bhāvā-adhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarva-jñātṛtvaṁ ca ||49||
Mastery of feelings and omniscience can only be attained through knowledge of the difference between the physical world and the true self. ||49||

तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम् ॥५०॥
tad-vairāgyād-api doṣa-bīja-kṣaye kaivalyam ||50||
Non-attachment (vairagya) even from that omiscience destroys the foundation of all dysbalances (dosha) and results in liberation (kaivalya). ||50||

स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात् ॥५१॥
sthāny-upa-nimantraṇe saṅga-smaya-akaraṇaṁ punar-aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt ||51||
When the celestial beings beckon, the yogi should avoid forming any attachment to this complacency, since this contact can reinstate undesirable attachment. ||51||

क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमात् विवेकजंज्ञानम् ॥५२॥
kṣaṇa-tat-kramayoḥ saṁyamāt vivekajaṁ-jñānam ||52||
Meditation (samyama) on the moments and their succession give rise to knowledge (jnana) that is born from discernment (viveka). ||52||

जातिलक्षणदेशैः अन्यतानवच्छेदात् तुल्ययोः ततः प्रतिपत्तिः ॥५३॥
jāti-lakṣaṇa-deśaiḥ anyatā-anavacchedāt tulyayoḥ tataḥ pratipattiḥ ||53||
This gives rise to knowledge of distinction between two similar objects that are not normally distinguishable on the basis of their category, characteristics, or position in space. ||53||

तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमंचेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम् ॥५४॥
tārakaṁ sarva-viṣayaṁ sarvathā-viṣayam-akramaṁ-ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam ||54||
Knowledge that is born of discernment transcends all objects, all beings and all time. ||54||

सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यम् ॥५५॥
sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyam ||55||
Liberation (kaivalya) comes when parity between the physical world and the true self (purusha) is attained. ||55||